Standard: Physical Science
Students demonstrate an understanding of the composition of physical systems and the concepts and principles that describe and predict physical interactions and events in the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding of the structure and properties of matter, the properties of materials and objects, chemical reactions and the conservation of matter. In addition, it includes understanding the nature, transfer and conservation of energy; motion and the forces affecting motion; and the nature of waves and interactions of matter and energy. Students demonstrate an understanding of the historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with the physical sciences.
Benchmark A: [9-10]
Describe that matter is made of minute particles called atoms and atoms are comprised of even smaller components. Explain the structure and properties of atoms.
Benchmark B: [9-10]
Explain how atoms react with each other to form other substances and how molecules react with each other or other atoms to form even different substances.
Benchmark C: [9-10]
Describe the identifiable physical properties of substances (e.g., color, hardness, conductivity, density, concentration and ductility). Explain how changes in these properties can occur without changing the chemical nature of the substance.
Benchmark D: [9-10]
Explain the movement of objects by applying Newton's three laws of motion.
Benchmark E: [9-10]
Demonstrate that energy can be considered to be either kinetic (motion) or potential (stored).
Benchmark F: [9-10]
Explain how energy may change form or be redistributed but the total quantity of energy is conserved.
Benchmark G: [9-10]
Demonstrate that waves (e.g., sound, seismic, water, and light) have energy and waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter.
Benchmark H: [9-10]
Trace the historical development of scientific theories and ideas, and describe emerging issues in the study of physical sciences.